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Advantages of transformable unmanned aerial vehicles.

Unmanned aerial vehicles are not a novelty for the current market. But there is a list of shortcomings along with their technical characteristics. Typically, those are:

For the first time on the Russian market, we offer unmanned vehicles freed from those disadvantages all at once.

We have developed a completely new layout of the machine, in which only the one-piece fuselage with the instrument compartment, the antenna unit and the sensors remain unchanged, which makes up to 80% of the cost of any drone.

But the aerodynamic scheme that is the most important thing for any aircraft can be altered in accordance with the tasks assigned. Simply put, right before the flight you can completely change the configuration of the carrying aerodynamic surfaces (wings and blades), turning the device from an airplane into helicopter or quadcopter, increasing its speed or power. There are more than 20 basic layout options, each of which corresponds to a specific task and load. Here are just a few of them:

 

 

QUADCOPTER (HELICOPTER) TYPE LAYOUTS


One-piece fuselage
(with instrument compartment,
antenna farm and accumulator pack)


Quadcopter

Airplane with an X-wing,
vertical-attitude takeoff and landing


Airplane with a ring wing,
vertical takeoff and landing


Airplane with a cruciform wing,
vertical takeoff and landing


Aircraft with an incomplete
cross-shaped wing, vertical takeoff and landing

AIRPLANE TYPE LAYOUTS

Tailless airplane


Tail-first airplane
(with an increased instrument compartment)


One-piece fuselage motor-glider


Two-piece fuselage variant
(with stereoscopic base increased up to 0.5-1 m)

Possible variants of configuration (layout) of a transformable unmanned aerial vehicle,

 

where:

  1. One-piece fuselage with the instrument compartment located in it, including permanent and variable instrumentation (sensors for monitoring the state of the surrounding space, photo and video camera, pusher propeller with motor for some variants, etc.), antenna unit (antennas of radio control and telemetry systems and video antenna) and accumulator pack.
  2. Quadcopter (analogues – the DJI Company aircrafts) is designed for vertical take-off, landing, hovering and flying at low speeds. Due to having the propellers with a significant proportion of reactive component, it is able to fly at altitudes of more than 10 thousand meters. It is characterized by high power-to-weight and thrust-to-weight ratios (up to 2-3), good controllability over all three spatial axes, sensitivity to ascending currents (as a rule, not more than 5 m/sec in normal position).
  3. Airplane with an X-wing (analogues – the MAI airplane with an X-wing and the Shkval-1A project airplane of the Sukhov Design Bureau, barring the HERO-400EC ammunition) is intended for vertical take-off, landing and hovering in two modes – vertical (“helicopter”) and horizontal (“airplane”). It is characterized by low inductive resistance, high power-to-weight and thrust-to-weight ratios (up to 2-3), good controllability over all three spatial axes. Due to the large critical angle of attack, it is not very sensitive to ascending and descending flows, which allows it to fly in conditions of large-scale turbulence, for example, directly near mountain slopes or in cumulus clouds. The presence of four wing consoles allows it to fly at altitudes of more than 10 thousand meters.
  4. Airplane with a ring wing (analogues – Louis Brelio airplane (1906), MAI airplane of the M. Sukhanov project (1940), Lerche airplane by E. Heinkel (1940), vertical takeoff airplane C-450 Coleoptere (1950), the American Convair Model 49 (1967) project) is distinguished by the ability to carry out vertical take-off and landing, an unprecedentedly large critical angle of attack, small size and low inductive resistance. It is design compatible with launch pods of various types.
  5. ,6 Airplane with the cruciform wing (analogues – XFV-1 Salmon, Convair XFY-1 Pogo (1955) airplanes, the Quantix unmanned aircraft, XplusOne (2014) airplane) is characterized by low inductive resistance, no parasitic moment, high power-to-weight and thrust-to-weight ratios (up to 2-3) and the ability to fly in difficult meteorological conditions at high altitudes.
  1. Tailless airplane is one of the main types of small unmanned aircrafts intended for aerial photography and monitoring the earth’s surface (analogues – Horten Ho IX (1940), Northrop N-1M (1940), B-49 (1946), Northrop B-2 Spirit (1989), unmanned aircrafts of Geoscans and ZALA companies). It differs in simplicity of design, small specific wing load, and difficulty of manual control.
  2. Tail-first airplane – the first type of aircraft with an internal combustion engine, proposed by the Wright brothers in December 1903 (Flyer I aircrafts). It features an increased capacity of the fuselage for payload distribution, the simplicity of the automatic control algorithm. Disadvantages – the tendency to “pitch over” at large angles of attack.
  3. One-piece fuselage motor-glider is an excellent option for long flights, including high altitude ones, in a relatively calm atmosphere. Analogues – MQ-9 Reaper, Predator, X-UAV Talon, Orion-E drones. It works well for retransmission of radio signals, long-term monitoring of the earth’s surface. This scheme is successfully used in aircrafts with electric motor and solar panels.
  4. Two-piece fuselage motor-glider is the most successful configuration for long flight time aircrafts. Analogues – Stratolaunch Model 351, Aerosponde, Shadow 200, CH-T4 unmanned aerial vehicles. This configuration is well suited for unmanned aircrafts with solar panels. It is distinguished by the following: stiffness of the structure; increased fuselage capacity to accommodate the payload; large aspect ratio wing; large stereoscopic base when using two cameras located in different fuselages.

 

Types and forms of a transformable unmanned vehicle

The basic configuration of our aircraft includes a special compact container, where everything necessary for operation can be placed: a fuselage with all necessary equipment as well as various aerodynamic planes and load-bearing mechanisms. The contents of the case can be arranged in one of four basic versions for air operations:

The comparative technical characteristics of these designs are provided in the table below.

No. Characteristics Configuration variant
Quadcopter X-wing Tailless Motor glider
1 Flight height, not less than, m 6000 10000 6000
2 Flight speed, not less than, m/s 20 35 20 10
3 Accumulators, not less than, type/mAh Li-Io/11000
4 Number of motors (brushless electrical) 4 4 1 1
5 Specific wing load, g/dm2,

not more (depends on the payload)

~120 ~71 ~34
6 Payload In accordance with flight assignment, see the nomenclature below
7 Flight time, min, not less than 25 60 90
8 Wind speed at take-off, m/sec, not more than 15 30 20
9 Type of takeoff/landing vert./

vert., net

catapult or from hand / parachute
10 Geometrical dimensions, (LxWxH), mm 500х

500х

200

500х

500х

495

1217х

680х

141

2000х

1100х

250

11 WEIGHT, kg, about ~2

(depending on configuration and payload)


Quadcopter (one of the possible layouts).

Isometry Exploded view
Equipment

Basic Assembly Units
(one-piece fuselage, top plate, bottom plate, four two- or three-bladed propellers, side beams with motors, four racks).

It is intended for inspection of separate objects located at heights up to 6000 m.

The placement of additional payload (high-resolution cameras, additional batteries, small loads and / or parachutes, …) is provided for on the external mount.

Vertical takeoff and landing airplane with an X-wing.

Assembled bulk view Exploded view
 

Basic Assembly Units

(one-piece fuselage, four wing consoles,
four two- or three-bladed propellers).

It is designed for flights in conditions of strong turbulence, with strong ascending and descending currents in mountains at altitudes of more than 4,500 m. It is able to fully operate where piloted aircrafts and traditional unmanned aerial vehicles are helpless.

This configuration (layout) is distinguished by: high values ​​of critical angles of attack, symmetry of aerodynamic characteristics along all axes, good controllability, ability to carry out vertical take-off and landing.

The main purpose is air support of search and rescue operations in the mountainous terrain at high altitudes.

Special feature of the instrument compartment is the Flir Boson thermal imager.

The placement of additional payload (containers for medicines capable of removing oxygen starvation or for small loads) and/or parachute is provided for on the external mount.

 

Tailless airplane.

General view Exploded assembly

Basic Assembly Units

(one-piece fuselage, two wing consoles,
one-, two- or three-blade propelling propeller with motor).

The main purpose – monitoring the earth surface, aerial photography, creation of three-dimensional image, cartography, search operations at a distance (height) of at least 200 m from the surface of the earth (slopes), etc.

Features of the instrument compartment – higher resolution camera with the between-lens shutter, thermal imager

External mount can be used for extra payload – additional accumulators, radiation environment and harmful atmospheric admixtures monitoring sensor, and / or a parachute

It is designed for flights in a relatively calm atmosphere at altitudes of up to four thousand meters.

 

Features of design and configuration (in comparison with the X-wing airplane):

 

One-piece fuselage motor-glider.

General view Exploded assembly

Basic Assembly Units

(one-piece fuselage, two wing consoles, two stabilizers, an additional fuselage, one two- or three-blade propeller with motor).

 

The main purposes are signal retransmission and ground surface monitoring

Features of the instrumentation compartment – signal repeater and / or higher resolution camera with the between-lens shutter.

External mount can be used for extra payload – additional accumulators, radiation environment and harmful atmospheric admixtures monitoring sensor and / or a parachute.

It is designed for flights in a calm atmosphere at high altitudes and away from the slopes of the mountains.

Features of design and configuration (in comparison with other modifications of the device):

Instrument compartment

A huge variety of tasks and functions of our aircraft dictated the need for a wide variety of assembling options for the main element of the machine – its instrument compartment. Just like the external form of the aircraft, its inner elements can be changed directly during the flight preparations.

As a matter of convenience, we combined all options for equipping the instrument compartment in two groups: constant filling (it does not change when the aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft and / or the flight assignment are changed) and variable payload, the choice of which is entirely up to the user and depends on the specific flight objectives.

  1. Flight controller – the Holybro PixFalcon Flight Controller (OSD, GPS, Telemetry) Combo or NAVIO2 (PXFmini) types, together with a single-board computer such as Raspberry.
  2. FPV panoramic camera – the Podofo HD 360 type, with AV output.
  3. Video transmitter – the Lawmate 2 GHz 8-CHANNEL 1000 MW (12 km) type.
  4. Radio receiver – the TBS CROSSFIRE DIVERSITY BUNDLE (SPECIAL OFFER) type, 15 km.
  5. GPS beacon- the tBeacon Amber
  6. LC filter – the LC filter 2A 16V type.
  7. Voltage stabilizer (regulator) (3.2 V) – the LM2596 type.
  1. Precision positioning system (RTK – Real Time Kinematic) – the SinoGNSS (manufacturer ComNav Technology Ltd) type.
  2. Radio modem – RFD-900 (up to 40 km) type.
  3. Multiscreen display system, 4 video channels – the 2D, 3D multi-view video system type.
  4. Video channel switch – the 3-channel FPV Video Switcher type.
  5. FPV video camera – the RunCam Eagle 2 Pro type.
  6. Side photo and video camera – the RunCam Split V2 type
  7. Stern video camera – the RunCam Micro Sparrow FPV Camera 16: 9 CMOS 700TVL with OSD type.
  8. Night camera – the RunCam Night Eagle type.
  9. Night video camera – the Runcam Owl 700TVL type.
  10. Thermal Imager – the Flir Boson or Flir Quark 640 type.
  11. Video recorder – the HM Digital Video Recorder type.
  12. I2C interface expander – the FrSky FSH-01 type.
  13. Laser altimeter – the SF11 / C (120 m) type.
  14. Flight mode switch – the Switcher for APM, Px4 and Pix autopilots type.
  15. Type K thermocouple signal converter (chromel-copel, -200…+1300 ⁰C) – the MAX6675 type.
  16. Sensors:
  1. Installation and connection of other equipment are possible by individual request of the user – we are ready to provide a full catalog upon your request.